Immanuel Kant
Kant, Immanuel
(1724 - 1804)

Kant was using the term transcendental in the context of what he calls a transcendental deduction which is an argument or "exposition" that establishes a necessary role for an a priori principle in our experience. According to Kant, all analytical and conceptual truths are a priori propositions, independent from experience, so (in reverse) all a posteriori truths are synthetic or factual. Is there, in addition to analytic-aprioric and synthetic-aposterioric knowledge, also synthetic-aprioric knowledge? Kant set this problem to the main question of his epistemology - he aspired to indicate, that e.g. mathematical truths and "necessary qualifications to knowledge of experience", like "General law of causality", are synthetic-apriorics.

Hegel, Georg Wilhelm Friedrich
Hegel, Georg Wilhelm Friedrich
(1770 - 1831)

G.W.F. Hegel agreed with Immanuel Kant that necessary truths must be mindimposed, but, like other critics of Kant, he rejected the idea of the thing-in-self as unintelligible. This led him to the view that all that exists must be mental. Hegel's philosophy is not only a form of idealism, it is also a form of monism. In his Encyklopädie (which has three parts, the first is called "Logic" or "The Lesser Logic", to distinguish it from the two volume "Wissenschaft der Logik" (1812-1813, 1816); the second is called "The Philosophy of Nature" and the third "The Philosophy of Mind"), Hegel gives a systematic account to what stages the mind "returns to itself". Hegel's "Logic" is not a treatise on formal logic. He calls logic "the science of thought"; and since, for him, thought is reality, the science of thought turns out to be a metaphysics.

The previous quote and many other interesting scientists and knowledge dealing with the history of philosophy, especially Conceptanalysis, you can find at following part of my "Conceptanalysis, Language and Logic"-site:

Review to the history of Conceptanalysis

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